All about contraceptives – Part 2

All about contraceptives – Part 2

All about contraceptives part 2

CONTRACEPTION AFTER BIRTH:

You can be fertile again within weeks of your baby’s birth, so you’ll need to start thinking about contraception even before you’re ready to have sex again post delivery.


All you need to know about the options open to you and your spouse:


Male condoms are the easiest type of contraceptive to use, because you can just keep some handy. Reliability: 85 per cent effective when used correctly.


PROS:

  • Safe if you are breast feeding and prefer not taking hormones
  • Provides protection against sexually transmitted diseases

CONS:

  • May not be suitable in case of latex allergy
  • Couple needs to be well motivated

A female condom sits inside your vagina and around the outside of your labia.


Reliability: 85 per cent effective when used correctly

PROS:

  • Safe if you are breast feeding and prefer not taking hormones
  • Provides protection against sexually transmitted diseases

CONS:

  • Involves insertion of the device into your body
  • Couple needs to be well motivated

Diaphragms and caps are soft, circular domes made of rubber or silicone. You insert your diaphragm or cap into your vagina each time you want to make love. Reliability: between 92 per cent and 96 per cent effective when used correctly, and with spermicide.

PROS:

  • Safe if you are breast feeding and prefer not taking hormones

CONS:

  • Involves insertion of the device into your body
  • Involves hassle of using spermicide creams or jellies
  • Couple needs to be well motivated
  • May not be suitable in case of latex allergy or spermicide allergy
  • May cause urinary tract infections
  • May not be effective in women with weak vaginal muscles

The combined pill, usually just called the pill, contains two hormones, estrogen and progestogen. You take the pill every day for 21 days and then have seven pill-free days once in every 28 days. Reliability: more than 99 per cent effective when taken correctly.

PROS:

  • Does not involve inserting or applying anything beforehand
  • Regulates periods and controls premenstrual symptoms

CONS:

  • Not recommended during breastfeeding
  • Not recommended in smokers or if you stopped smoking less than a year ago
  • Not recommended if you have had a heart problem or circulatory disease including blood clots (thrombosis)in any vein or artery, or high blood pressure
  • One should remember to take a daily pill
  • Not Suitable if you:
    • have breast cancer or have had breast cancer in the past five years
    • have diabetes with complications or have had diabetes for more than 20 years
    • are overweight
    • experience very severe migraines, or migraines with auras
    • have active disease of the liver or gall bladder
    • are taking certain medicines (check with your doctor)

The mini-pill contains the hormone progestogen. You take the mini-pill every day, at the same time of day. Reliability: more than 99 per cent effective when taken correctly.

PROS:

  • Does not involve inserting or applying anything beforehand
  • Regulates periods and controls premenstrual symptoms
  • Safe during breastfeeding
  • Safe in smokers

CONS:

  • One should remember to take a daily pill
  • Not recommended if:
    • have a history of breast or liver cancer
    • have a history of ovarian cysts
    • have had an ectopic pregnancy
    • have had unexplained vaginal bleeding (between periods or after sex)

Contraceptive patch

The patch releases a daily dose of estrogen and progestogen through your skin, into your bloodstream. Each patch lasts for seven days, and you have a patch-free seven days once in every 28 days. It works in the same way as the combined pill. Reliability: more than 99 per cent effective when used correctly.

PROS & CONS:

Same as combined pill except that there is no hassle of having to remember to take a pill daily

The vaginal ring is a slender, flexible, plastic ring which you put in your vagina for a set period of time. The ring releases the hormones estrogen and progestogen. A ring lasts for 21 days, and you have a ring-free seven days once in every 28 days. Reliability: more than 99 per cent effective when used correctly

PROS:

  • Regulates periods and controls premenstrual symptoms
  • No hassle of having to remember to take a pill daily

CONS:

  • Not recommended during breastfeeding
  • Not recommended in smokers or if you stopped smoking less than a year ago
  • Not recommended if you have had a heart problem or circulatory disease including blood clots (thrombosis)in any vein or artery, or high blood pressure
  • Not suitable if you:
  • have breast cancer or have had breast cancer in the past five years
  • have diabetes with complications or have had diabetes for more than 20 years
  • are overweight
  • experience very severe migraines, or migraines with auras
  • have active disease of the liver or gall bladder
  • have current cervical, ovarian, vaginal or uterine cancer
  • take certain medicines (check with your doctor)
  • have unexplained bleeding (such as between periods or after sex)
  • May not be effective in women with weak vaginal muscles
  • Requires retention of device in the body

Contraceptive Injections:

Two types of injection are available, one that lasts for 12 weeks and one that lasts for eight weeks. The injections result in the slow release of progestogen into your muscle. Reliability: 99 per cent effective if you get your injections on time

PROS:

  • Long-term contraception

CONS:

  • Women tend to put on up to 3kg over three years of use

An IUS is an implant that fits inside your uterus. It releases a steady dose of progestogen for up to five years. Reliability: more than 99 per cent effective.

PROS:

  • Long term contraception

CONS:

  • Not suitable if you have an untreated sexually transmitted infection or pelvic infection

An IUD or coil can be fitted for three to 10 years, depending which type you have. IUDs sit inside your uterus and stop sperm from reaching an egg or stop a fertilised egg implanting. Reliability: newer IUDs, which contain more copper, are more than 99 per cent effective

PROS:

  • Long term contraception

CONS:

  • Not suitable if you have heavy or painful periods
  • Not suitable if you have an untreated sexually transmitted infection or pelvic infection

Natural Family Planning pinpoints your fertile days so you can avoid making love, or use a barrier method, on those days.

Reliability: Depending on the method you choose and how disciplined you are about using it, you can prevent pregnancy up to 99 per cent of the time. If you are serious about NFP, you need to learn about it from a qualified teacher.

PROS:

  • Natural-no hormones or inserts

CONS:

  • Not reliable
  • Demands high levels of motivation

Female sterilisation

This operation involves cutting, sealing or blocking the fallopian tubes. This prevents your eggs from meeting sperm and becoming fertilised.

Reliability: About one woman in 400 will get pregnant in the first 10 years after sterilisation.

PROS:

  • Permanent method

CONS:

  • Surgical procedure
  • Irreversible

Male sterilisation

This operation involves sealing the tubes that carry sperm out of the testicles, preventing sperm from being ejaculated.

Reliability: more than 99 per cent effective. There’s about a one in 2,000 chance of a man who’s had a vasectomy  getting a woman pregnant.


PROS &CONS : Same as that of female sterilisation

While all methods of birth control have some potential adverse effects, the risk is less than that of pregnancy .After stopping or removing many methods of birth control, including oral contraceptives, IUDs, implants and injections, the rate of pregnancy during the subsequent year is the same as for those who used no birth control.


 

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